Facilities emitting 25,000 metric tons of CO2e per year are required by the EPA to report annual GHG emissions per EPA mandate 40 CFR Part 98. Subpart JJ covers reporting for manure management systems utilized by farming operations and landfills.

Subpart JJ covers all facets of manure management systems, which stabilize or store livestock manure in at least one of the following: uncovered anaerobic lagoons; liquid/slurry systems with and without crust covers (including but not limited to ponds and tanks); storage pits; digesters, including covered anaerobic lagoons; solid manure storage, drylots, including feedlots; high-rise houses for poultry production (poultry without litter); poultry production with litter; deep bedding systems for cattle and swine; manure composting.

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Biogas is produced from organic matter. It can be derived from fermentation or anaerobic digestion process from an organic feedstock, such as manure, sewage, agricultural waste, municipal waste, biomass, and industrial waste from food and beverage manufacturers. Biogas is a blend of approximately 65% CH4 and 35% CO2. Methane traps heat in the atmosphere over 20 times more than carbon dioxide and remains in the atmosphere for nine to fifteen years.

The biogas can be used to create energy while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions to improve the environment. Among the industries producing methane include farming operations and landfills.

Farming Operations

manure methane digester
Biogas is derived from fermentation or anaerobic digestion process from an organic feedstock, such as manure, sewage, agricultural waste, municipal waste, biomass, and industrial waste from food and beverage manufacturers.

Digester gas from farming and other agricultural operations is generated from the breakdown of livestock waste when the gas is captured within a large plastic cover, known as a digester. The manure decomposes in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic digestion). Usually, livestock waste decomposition results in vast amounts of methane, which vents naturally to the atmosphere.

The digester creates biogas, which is a mixture of approximately 65% CH4 and 35% CO2. This gas can then be captured and destroyed in a methane destruction process, which is accomplished by burning the gas in a flare or an engine. While the process creates carbon dioxide (a GHG), methane destruction is a very responsible method to reduce GHG emissions since methane is 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide.

Also, methane destruction can provide a source of fuel for heating or generating electricity.

There are hundreds of farming operations that reduce GHG emissions, accrue emissions credits to meet EPA’s reporting standards, and create renewable energy.

Thermal flow meters can quantify the emissions saved by measuring the mass flow rate. Since the environment is corrosive, and there are varying flow rates, many other flow technologies are not acceptable. The SAGE meter has rangeability at least 100:1 and as high as 1000:1, making it extremely accurate over wide flow ranges, which is needed because of gas spikes and seasonal climate changes. The SAGE sensors are clad in a protective 316 SS sheath and protect against corrosion.

The SAGE meter excels in these applications. They have low-end sensitivity making them accurate at very low flows, and the easy in-situ calibration facilitates the EPA’s requirement for periodic calibration checks.


With EPA now requiring emitters to report annual GHG emissions, flow meters are being scrutinized to find the best ways to measure and report data. The TMFM is becoming the preferred choice to monitor and measure GHG emissions in applications such as biogas, digester gas, landfill gas, and flare gas. One of the primary advantages a TMFM has over volumetric meters is that the meter measures mass flow. The SAGE products are state-of-the-art as the manufacturer is the first to bring to market a digitally-driven sensor, a graphical display, and onsite calibration verification. The SAGE meter is the only TMFM that provides a convenient, in-situ, and in-line calibration check that assures the flow meter retains the original NIST traceable calibration and is accurate.

To read the Sage Metering white paper “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Monitoring Using Thermal Mass Flow Meters,” visit Sage GHG Emissions White Paper.

For more information on PART 98— Subpart JJ— visit Manure Management.

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