Facilities annually emitting 25,000 metric tons of CO2e are required by the EPA to report annual GHG emissions per EPA mandate 40 CFR Part 98. Subpart HH covers all aspects of municipal solid waste landfills. In contrast, Subpart TT covers industrial waste landfills. In both subparts, flow meters can be used to measure landfill gas and determine methane emissions.
Landfill Gas Monitoring
Landfill gas (LFG) is a type of biogas derived from municipal solid waste. Its composition can vary, yet it generally contains more carbon dioxide and less methane than biogas. The composition is closer to 50%-50%. In some landfills, gases are extracted from multiple wellheads and collected through a network of pipes leading to a standard header pipe. Some landfill facilities use LFG to generate renewable energy (LFGTE). These facilities create energy to heat onsite buildings, boilers, and kilns, run generators to create electricity, and even produce a liquid or liquefied natural gas (LNG) for vehicles.
Aside from generating energy from waste, landfills frequently participate in carbon offset projects through methane destruction. Landfill gas is collected and destroyed at over 1000 landfills worldwide, which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and accrues carbon credits.
In facilities where LFG is not being used to create renewable energy, the EPA requires that the methane is collected and flared into the atmosphere to prevent its release.
Accurate flow measurement is required to quantify emissions being saved for landfill gas monitoring and reporting. Whether the gas is being extracted from wellheads, recovered in LFGTE applications, collected for carbon offset projects, or flared to prevent its release, thermal flow meters offer accurate and repeatable measurement.
Thermal mass flow meters meet the environment’s challenges, which include varying gas compositions, wet and dirty gas, a potentially explosive situation, fluctuations in the gas flow, including extremely low flow. The SAGE meter’s calibration can be verified onsite through the easy in-situ calibration check without removing the meter from the pipe, complying with the EPA flow measurement standards.
With the EPA now requiring emitters to report annual GHG emissions, flow meters are being scrutinized to find the best ways to measure and report data. Mass flow meters are becoming the preferred choice to monitor and measure GHG emissions in applications such as biogas, digester gas, landfill gas, and flare gas. One of the primary advantages of thermal mass flow meters (over volumetric meters) is that they measure mass flow. The SAGE products are state-of-the-art as Sage was the first to market a digitally-driven sensor, a graphical display, and onsite calibration verification. The SAGE meter is the only TMFM which provides a convenient, in-situ, and in-line calibration check that assures the flow meter retains the original NIST traceable calibration and is accurate.
To read the Sage Metering white paper “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Monitoring Using Thermal Mass Flow Meters,” visit Sage GHG Emissions White Paper.
For more information on PART 98— Subpart HH—Municipal Solid Waste Landfills
For more information on PART 98— Subpart TT—Industrial Waste Landfills
Other articles related to this post:
- Greenhouse gas emissions reporting regulations – Part I
- Mass flow measurement technologies for GHG emissions – Part II
- Thermal flow meters excel in greenhouse gas monitoring – Part III
- Thermal mass flow meters for greenhouse gas monitoring – Part IV